Two-dimensional-material-enabled nanoelectronic circuits can be grafted onto or embedded within colloidal microparticles coupled to an energy source, creating autonomous and semi-autonomous state machines in particulate form. The resulting devices operate as particulate systems capable of logical computation, remote sensing, and information storage.
In this context, we reported two parallel fabrication strategies to construct such colloidal electronic systems. One of them is based on traditional top-down photolithography, the other one is a bottom-up method we recently introduced as “autoperforation”. In particular, this “autoperforation” technique utilizes a method of controlled brittle fracture at the nanometer scale as a means of spontaneous assembly of surfaces comprised of 2D electronic materials.